News Press Clips

Press Clips Week 28-2018

Press Clips Week 28-2018


What Elon Musk Ought to Study From the Thailand Cave Rescue

Silicon Valley moguls appear to consider they will repair most something, they usually seem befuddled when their makes an attempt to take action aren’t met with unbridled enthusiasm.

The tech billionaire Elon Musk was among the many tens of millions of individuals captivated by the plight of the 12 boys and their soccer coach just lately trapped in a collapse Thailand. However Mr. Musk didn’t simply comply with the story on the information and social media; he has huge assets, so he additionally tried to assist.

He directed his engineers to construct a miniature “submarine” (principally a classy metallic cylinder) that he hoped might be used for the rescue. He shared movies of the submarine together with his 22 million followers on Twitter. And he acquired widespread media protection and encouragement from his many followers.

Learn extra at: NYTimes

GAO Report on Business Crew Suggests: ‘The Hell they will Launch (Operational Crew) Before 2019’

Predictions by SpaceX’s president, Gwynn Shotwell, that the corporate’s Crew Dragon spacecraft would fly with astronauts by 2018 look like inaccurate. Equally Boeing’s entry in NASA’s Business Crew Program aren’t anticipated to capable of obtain key certification aims this yr both, in accordance with a authorities report. This evaluation is predicated on a current report submitted on July 11, 2018, by the Authorities Accountability Workplace. It notes that SpaceX’s common certification date is now estimated to be January of 2020, with Boeing predicted to succeed in its certification milestone by December of 2019.

Whereas the Report’s findings are necessary, they don’t seem to be definitive statements that crew won’t be launched in 2018. Actually, NASA’s weblog relating to the Business Crew Program denotes the next when it comes to the testing routine of each spacecraft: Focused Check Flight Dates: Boeing Orbital Flight Check (uncrewed): August 2018, Boeing Crew Flight Check (crewed): November 2018, SpaceX Demonstration Mission 1 (uncrewed): August 2018, SpaceX Demonstration Mission 2 (crewed): December 2018. It isn’t clear at this level if points raised within the Report will impression the above testing schedule presently.

GAO report:

Learn extra at Spaceflight Insider

NASA’s Massive Astronaut Trash Drawback

As we discover and attain farther out into the cosmos, what is going to we do with all of our trash?

For astronauts aboard the Worldwide Area Station, space for storing is extraordinarily useful and restricted — however even astronauts have rubbish. Along with taking over valuable area, this rubbish creates potential bodily and organic well being and security hazards for the astronauts. On the area station, astronauts at present squeeze their rubbish into trash luggage and, for momentary durations of time, retailer as much as 2 metric tons of trash on board. They then ship the trash out on business provide automobiles, which both attain Earth or expend in reentry.

However what is going to occur to those tons of trash when astronauts are a lot farther from Earth? The farther we journey into the photo voltaic system, the extra difficult it is going to be to successfully handle and eliminate trash. NASA thinks that the important thing to this massive space-trash drawback might be addressed with know-how that compacts and processes trash, in accordance with a brand new assertion from the company.

Learn extra at:

‘Toxic’ Rocket Propellant Poses Hazard at Proposed Canso Spaceport, Prof Says

The corporate behind a proposed spaceport has made its pitch to the setting minister for approval, however a professor on the College of British Columbia is elevating considerations about an “exceedingly toxic” rocket propellant that can be used on the Canso, N.S., operation.

Maritime Launch Providers filed its environmental evaluation research with the province on July Four.

The doc, which totals 362 pages together with appendices, was ready by Strum Consulting and descriptions environmental dangers and penalties of the challenge on every thing from air, water and soil to butterflies and moose.

The challenge will see a personal, business rocket launch website constructed simply outdoors Canso. The rockets gained’t be used to ship people into area, however quite satellites to be used in near-earth imaging, communications or scientific experiments.

Learn extra at: CBC

Orion Jettison Motor Prepared for Crew Escape System Check

Aerojet Rocketdyne lately handed a key milestone in preparation for the Ascent Abort Check (AA-2) subsequent yr with the profitable casting of the Jettison Motor for the Lockheed Martin-built Orion spacecraft’s Launch Abort System (LAS).

AA-2 is a full-stress check of NASA’s Orion LAS, which incorporates the Jettison Motor constructed by Aerojet Rocketdyne. The Orion Jettison Motor is used to separate the LAS from Orion because it makes its method to area and is the one motor on the escape system to activate in all mission situations.

Within the unlikely occasion of an emergency on the launch pad or throughout ascent, the LAS would activate inside milliseconds to whisk Orion and its astronaut crew to security. As soon as Orion reaches a protected distance from the rocket, the Orion Jettison Motor would ignite to separate the LAS construction from the spacecraft, which might then deploy its parachutes for a protected touchdown.

Learn extra at: Spaceref

Internally, NASA Believes Boeing Forward of SpaceX in Business Crew

One of many largest rivalries within the trendy aerospace business is between Boeing and SpaceX. Regardless of their radically totally different cultures, the aerospace big and the smaller upstart compete for a lot of totally different sorts of contracts, and maybe nowhere has the competitors been extra eager than for NASA funds.

In 2014, each Boeing and SpaceX acquired multibillion awards (Boeing requested for, and received, 50 % extra funding for a similar activity) to finalize improvement of spacecraft to hold astronauts to the Worldwide Area Station as a part of the business crew program. Since then, each corporations have been locked in a race to the launchpad, not simply to free NASA from its reliance on Russia to succeed in area but in addition for the appreciable esteem that may accompany turning into the primary personal firm on the earth to fly people into orbit.

Learn extra at: Arstechnica

SpaceX’s Crew Dragon Capsule Arrives in Florida to Get Set for Uncrewed Check Flight

After months of testing, a SpaceX Dragon capsule that’s designed to hold astronauts to and from the Worldwide Area Station has arrived in Florida, marking a big step towards this summer time’s scheduled check launch.

Regardless that the car known as a “Crew Dragon,” this Dragon gained’t carry crew on its first flight. As an alternative, it’s because of make an uncrewed follow run to the area station throughout what’s often known as Demonstration Mission 1, or DM-1.

Earlier than this week’s cargo to Florida, the Dragon underwent thermal vacuum checks in addition to acoustic exams at NASA’s Plum Brook Station in Ohio. Immediately SpaceX confirmed off an image of the Crew Dragon, which is a redesigned, beefed-up model of its robotic cargo-carrying Dragon, by way of Twitter and Instagram.

Learn extra at: Geekwire

Historic Twin Pads of Launch Complicated 17 Demolished, After 300+ Launches Over 50 Years of Service

After first echoing to the roar of rocket engines in 1957—earlier than the Area Age even started—historic Area Launch Complicated (SLC)-17 close to the southern finish of Cape Canaveral Air Pressure Station, Fla., breathed its final earlier at present (Thursday, 12 July), when shortly after 7:00 a.m. EDT its two almost 200-foot-tall gantries have been remotely destroyed. Brig. Gen. Wayne Monteith, commander of the Air Pressure’s 45th Area Wing, initiated detonations of 68 kilos of explosives which introduced SLC-17A and SLC 17B to the bottom after a mixed 325 launches in additional than 5 many years of lively service. Throughout their storied careers, the 2 pads hosted the primary profitable low-orbiting climate satellite tv for pc, Britain’s maiden satellite tv for pc, the world’s earliest communications satellites, GPS satellites, in addition to NASA area telescopes and Mars Rovers.

Constructed at a reported value of $three.5 million per complicated, SLC-17 arose in April 1956, with an intention that they might help the Air Pressure’s PGM-17 Thor ballistic missile.

Learn extra at: America Area

SpaceX Mars Rocket Check Website Receives First Big Rocket Propellant Storage Tank

SpaceX has delivered one of many first undeniably rocketry-related items of hardware to its potential Boca Chica check and launch facility in South Texas, this time within the type of an enormous 100,000-gallon liquid oxygen tank now stationed adjoining to the corporate’s ~600 kW Tesla photo voltaic and battery array.

In a press release offered to native paper Valley Morning Star, SpaceX spokesperson Sean Pitt crammed in a number of of the small print and confirmed that the LOX tank had been delivered to Boca Chica as a part of an ongoing effort to prepared the location for preliminary testing – and ultimately launches – of an unspecified “vehicle”

Learn extra at: Teslarati

Area Tourism Flights with Virgin and Blue Origin are Mere Months from Carry-off. Their Journeys will probably be Worlds Aside

The 2 corporations main the pack within the pursuit of area tourism say they’re simply months away from their first passenger flights, although neither has set a agency date.

Learn extra at: scmp

Virgin Area Corporations Signal New Agreements with Italy

Virgin Galactic and Virgin Orbit introduced a set of agreements July 6 with Italian corporations and the Italian Area Company that would result in suborbital and orbital launches from a proposed Italian spaceport.

Underneath one “framework agreement” signed by Virgin Galactic and Italian corporations Altec and Sitael, the businesses will proceed planning for potential flights of Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo from the Taranto-Grottaglie Airport within the southern a part of Italy.

That settlement, if carried out as proposed, requires The Spaceship Firm, the sister firm of Virgin Galactic, to construct a “dedicated space system” that features a WhiteKnightTwo service plane and SpaceShipTwo suborbital car that might function out of the Taranto-Grottaglie Airport for tourism and analysis flights.

Learn extra at: Spacenews

NASA Might Ask Russia for Further Soyuz Seats On account of Delayed U.S. Ships’ Certification – Supply

America might fail to certify its manned spaceships earlier than August 2020, by which case NASA will want further seats on Russian Soyuz ships, in accordance with the USA Authorities Accountability Workplace.

“Additional delays could result in a gap in U.S. access to the space station as NASA has contracted for seats on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft only through November 2019,” the Workplace stated.

“The earliest and latest possible completion dates for certification in NASA’s April 2018 schedule risk analysis indicate it is possible that neither contractor would be ready before August 2020, leaving a potential gap in access of at least 9 months,” it stated.

Learn extra at: Interfax

Blue Origin to Supply Twin Launch with New Glenn After Fifth Mission

Blue Origin will start flying two clients on the identical New Glenn rocket after the launch car has carried out 5 missions with solo clients, in response to Ted McFarland, Blue Origin’s business director of Asia-Pacific enterprise.

“Our first five are all dedicated missions as we release margin and prove out our operational reusability concept,” McFarland stated July Four on the APSAT 2018 convention right here. “But starting from launch six on, we will have a dual-manifesting capability. Coupled with a 13-metric-ton to GEO — to actual GEO insertion — capability at that point, it will be a fairly significant achievement.”

Learn extra at: Spacenews

China Readying for Area Station Period: Yang Liwei

China is accelerating its timetable for an area station, with the core capsule anticipated to be launched in 2020, says Yang Liwei, director of the China Manned Area Engineering Workplace and the nation’s first astronaut.

Yang informed Chinese language media lately that the 2 experiment modules of the area station will probably be despatched into area in 2021 and 2022. Three or 4 manned missions and a number of other cargo spacecraft are deliberate in 2021 and 2022.

After development of the primary elements of the area station, a capsule holding a big optical telescope will probably be despatched into the identical orbit to fly with the station, Yang stated.

Learn extra at: Xinhuanet

Business Area Journey and Us

There are individuals alive at present who have been born earlier than the Wright brothers’ first flight in 1903 — the whole historical past of powered aviation and area flight has occurred inside a human lifespan. In that point air journey has reworked the world, and area journey might be subsequent.

Greater than 100 billion individuals have lived on Earth however solely 558 have been to area. Choice is very aggressive and astronauts should meet strict requirements for health and well being. All of that is about to vary with the approaching daybreak of economic suborbital area flight.

Members of the general public will quickly be travelling past the edge of area by means of corporations reminiscent of Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic. They may fly a brief up-and-down suborbital trajectory offering a number of minutes of weightlessness, as Alan Shepard did in 1961 when he turned the primary American in area and an immediate nationwide hero.

Learn extra at: Adelaide evaluate

Technique of Making Oxygen from Water in Zero Gravity Raises Hope for Lengthy-Distance Area Journey

Area businesses and personal corporations have already got superior plans to ship people to Mars within the subsequent few years – finally colonising it. And with a rising variety of discoveries of Earth-like planets round close by stars, long-distance area journey has by no means appeared extra thrilling.

Nevertheless, it isn’t straightforward for people to outlive in area for sustained durations of time. One of many principal challenges with long-distance area flight is transporting sufficient oxygen for astronauts to breathe and sufficient gasoline to energy complicated electronics. Sadly, there’s solely little oxygen out there in area and the good distances make it onerous to do fast refills.

However now a brand new research, revealed in Nature Communications, exhibits that it’s attainable to supply hydrogen (for gasoline) and oxygen (for all times) from water alone utilizing a semiconductor materials and daylight (or star mild) in zero gravity – making sustained area journey an actual risk.

Learn extra at: Dialog

NASA Wants Backup Plan to Keep U.S. Presence at Area Station, Watchdog Says

A authorities watchdog company needs NASA to provide you with a contingency plan for getting American astronauts to the Worldwide Area Station.

The advice is likely one of the main takeaways in a 47-page report from the Authorities Accountability Workplace on what is called the Business Crew Program.

Because the Area Shuttle was retired in 2011, NASA has been counting on Russia to hold American astronauts aboard its Soyuz capsule to the area station. The Related Press says the U.S. has paid Moscow as much as $82 million a seat for the journey into orbit. The GAO notes that the contract with Russia is about to finish in late 2019.

Learn extra at: NPR

Rocket Report: Virgin Goes Italian, SpaceX’s Big Internet, a Nuclear Launcher

Virgin Galactic indicators deal to launch from Italy. Virgin Galactic and a pair of Italian corporations have signed a framework settlement aimed toward bringing Virgin Galactic’s suborbital area tourism launcher to a future spaceport in Italy. The spaceplane can be based mostly at Taranto-Grottaglie Airport, which Italian public-private companions goal to show right into a spaceport. The spaceport might turn out to be lively as early as 2020, GeekWire stories.

Nammo on schedule for September suborbital launch. Norwegian aerospace firm Nammo says that it has carried out a ultimate profitable floor check of its Nucleus rocket flight propulsion system and that the hybrid rocket know-how is now able to energy the primary launch of a Norwegian-built area rocket in September. The Nucleus is a sounding rocket, however the demonstration might result in the event of a micro launcher, able to putting small satellites as much as 150kg into low-Earth orbit.

Learn extra at: Arstechnica

Enhancing Competitiveness of European Area Sector With Elevated Investments

At present, ESA Director Common Jan Wörner and Vice President of the European Funding Financial institution (EIB) Ambroise Fayolle signed a joint assertion on enhancing the competitiveness of the European area sector by supporting investments in actors of the sector with promising short- or medium-term views.

The joint assertion places forth the intention of the 2 organisations to cooperate on devising joint help mechanisms so as to assist create a level-playing subject for European corporations to develop and compete globally.

In his introductory remarks, Ambroise Fayolle recalled that because the EIB has a mission to help sustainable funding tasks that contribute to progress and employment in Europe, with a give attention to innovation and expertise; entry to finance for smaller companies; infrastructure; and local weather change.

Learn extra at: ESA

To Infinity and Past: Area Diplomacy and the New Area Age

The Trump administration’s push “to boldly go where no man has gone before” has revamped america’ area business. This renewed fervor simulating the likes of the U.S.-Russia Area Race has impressed cooperation between nationwide area businesses and between authorities organizations and business enterprises. John Bridenstine, the director of the Nationwide Aeronautics and Area Administration (NASA) confirmed this collaborative strategy to trendy area exploration whereas at a current POLITICO occasion.  Recognizing the position of a strong business market within the new area age, Bridenstine predicted that the mixed efforts of NASA, business corporations, and numerous nationwide area businesses will launch mankind past its present limitations.

Learn extra at: Diplomaticourier

New NASA Director Chooses Israel for First Int’l Go to

The director of United States area company (NASA) Jim Bridenstine arrived to Israel Thursday and signed new settlement with the Israel Area Company (ISA) in his first worldwide go to.

NASA and the ISA will increase their cooperation, in response to an official joint assertion issued on Thursday by Science and Know-how Minister Ofir Akunis, NASA director Bridenstine and Israel Aerospace Company Director Avi Blassberger. In the course of the assembly, Akunis said Israel’s want to ship one other Israeli astronaut to area, during which Bridenstine declared that NASA additionally had an curiosity.

Learn extra at: jpost

NASA Administrator has been Lobbying for a Area Skilled to be his Deputy. That’s Not Who the White Home Nominated.

In current weeks, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine had come out publicly saying what he needed in a deputy — somebody with a technical background who understood area and the company charged with exploring it. He even had an individual in thoughts, Janet Kavandi, a former NASA astronaut who flew to area 3 times and now’s the director of NASA’s Glenn Analysis Middle.

However on Thursday, the White Home went in a totally totally different course, nominating James Morhard, a longtime senior staffer on Capitol Hill with little to no technical expertise who critics stated is getting the nod due to shut ties in Washington. Morhard serves because the U.S. Senate deputy sergeant at arms and over an extended authorities profession was a employees director on the Senate Appropriations Committee and labored within the secretary of the Navy’s workplace.

Learn extra at: Washington Submit

JWST Prime Contractor Northrop Grumman Broadcasts Management Transition

Northrop Grumman (NG) introduced in the present day that its Chairman and Chief Government Officer (CEO) Wes Bush will step down in 2019.  He shall be changed by Kathy Warden, presently the corporate’s President and Chief Working Officer (COO).  The transfer comes weeks after NG’s profitable acquisition of Orbital ATK.  It is also a time when the corporate is beneath scrutiny for its implementation of NASA’s James Webb Area Telescope (JWST), nevertheless.  NASA has introduced schedule delays and price overruns for JWST due to “avoidable errors” on the firm throughout JWST integration and testing.

Bush made his begin as a techniques engineer at TRW, which was acquired by NG in 2002.  He was NG’s COO from 2003-2006, Chief Monetary Officer from 2005-2007, and have become President in 2006. He was appointed chairman in 2011 and was Chairman, President and CEO in 2017.

Learn extra at: Spacepolicy on-line

Why Area Capitalism will Eat Itself

There’s a seemingly minor administrative change within the new American Area Commerce Free Enterprise Act. Handed unanimously by the US Home of Representatives in April, and a key speaking level at a current Safe World Basis convention on area sustainability held in Washington DC, the brand new Act provides the commerce division, and never the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), duty for area visitors administration points.

US vice chairman Mike Pence has reportedly stated it’s meant to alleviate the defence division the burden of offering potential collision warnings to the rising variety of satellite tv for pc operators. Nonetheless why not let the FAA deal with it?

Learn extra at: Irish Occasions

Russia, China to Add Lunar Tasks to Joint Area Cooperation Program

This system of Russian-Chinese language cooperation in outer area for 2018-2022 shall be supplemented with tasks associated to the Moon’s exploration, the press workplace of Russia’s State Area Company Roscosmos stated on Wednesday.

This choice was made at a session of the joint working group of the 2 nations on cooperation in outer area, Roscosmos stated.

“During the session, the Russian and Chinese sides discussed the implementation of bilateral cooperation in outer space for 2018-2022, as a result of which a joint decision was made to supplement this cooperation program with the projects related to the study and exploration of the Moon,” Roscosmos stated.

Learn extra at: TASS

Meet the Unknown Immigrant Billionaire Betting her Fortune to Tackle Musk in Area

Even within the bloated-budget world of aerospace, $650 million is some huge cash. It’s roughly the worth of six of Boeing’s workhorse 737s or, for the extra militarily inclined, about the price of seven F-35 stealth fighter jets. It’s additionally the sum of money NASA and the Sierra Nevada Corp. spent creating the Dream Chaser, a reusable spacecraft designed to take astronauts into orbit. Sierra Nevada, which is predicated in Sparks, Nevada, and 100% owned by Eren Ozmen and her husband, Fatih, put in $300 million; NASA ponied up the opposite $350 million. The Dream Chaser’s first free flight was in October 2013 when it was dropped 12,500 ft from a helicopter. The touchdown gear malfunctioned, and the car skidded off the runway upon touchdown. A yr later, NASA handed on Sierra Nevada’s area aircraft and awarded the multibillion-dollar contracts to Boeing and SpaceX.

Learn extra at: Forbes

Rocket Engine Scores ‘Perfect 10’ in 10-day Check for Phantom Categorical Area Aircraft

A rocket engine constructed from spare area shuttle elements — and the group behind the engine — handed a grueling 10-day, 10-firing check that units the stage for Boeing’s Phantom Categorical army area aircraft.

“We scored a perfect 10 last week,” Jeff Haynes, Aerojet Rocketdyne’s program supervisor for the AR-22 engine, advised reporters in the present day throughout a teleconference.

The hydrogen-fueled AR-22 is essentially based mostly on the RS-25 engine that was used on the area shuttle and shall be used on NASA’s heavy-lift Area Launch System. “We’ve upgraded the ‘brain’ for this derivative mission,” utilizing a complicated controller, Haynes stated.

Learn extra at: Geekwire

Trump’s Area Pressure will Guard the U.S. from Above, NASA Chief Says

NASA’s administrator is a robust defender of President Donald Trump’s proposals for area — together with an armed pressure and a everlasting presence on the moon — and says he needs People to comprehend how a lot their well-being is determined by what occurs far above Earth.

“Every banking transaction requires a GPS signal for timing,” Jim Bridenstine stated in an interview. “You lose the GPS signal and guess what you lose? You lose banking. If you look at what space is, it’s not that much different than the ocean,” added Bridenstine, who made 333 aircraft-carrier landings as a Navy pilot. “It’s an international domain that has commerce that needs to be protected.”

Bridenstine was in his third time period representing a congressional district in Oklahoma when Trump nominated him to steer the $21 billion area company. He was confirmed within the spring regardless of criticism over his lack of scientific or engineering expertise and his earlier statements questioning local weather change science — although he stated in hearings that human exercise was the chief trigger of worldwide warming.

Learn extra at: Bloomberg

Vandenberg Airforce Base Establishes Mixed Area Operation Middle

Vandenberg Airforce Base will increase its area mission capabilities on July 18 when the Joint Area Operations Middle transitions to a Combines Area Operations Middle (CSpOC).

AFB officers say the bottom will now have overseas companions concerned of their area operations to enhance area assurance, resilience, and mutual safety, broaden army relationships by leveraging capabilities, maximize effectiveness throughout all mission areas, and increase worldwide partnerships in help of mixed goals.

“Space is a warfighting domain, just like air, land, and sea,” stated Airforce Basic John W. Raymond, Commander of JFSC and Air Drive Area Command.

Learn extra at: keyt

Summer time of the Shuttle: Remembering the Unwell-Fated Summer time of ’84

Greater than 30 summers in the past, America’s shuttle program ought to have entered its prime. Touted for over a decade as able to flying commonly and routinely, the early summer time of 1984 was envisaged to see as many as three missions by Discovery and Challenger—two laden with scientific and technological payloads, the third a categorised voyage on behalf of the Division of Protection—because the reusable fleet of orbiters transitioned from test-flights to full operations. In three years of shuttle operations, the ships had demonstrated their talents to function scientific analysis platforms, satellite tv for pc launching pads and will retrieve and restore broken spacecraft. The longer term appeared brilliant.

That’s, till the morning of 26 June 1984.

As outlined in a earlier AmericaSpace historical past article, Discovery’s maiden mission, designated “41D”, was able to fly. Laden with the U.S. Navy’s Syncom Four-1 communications satellite tv for pc, a large-format imaging digital camera and the extendible OAST-1 photo voltaic array mast, offered by NASA’s Workplace of Aeronautics and Area Know-how, the flight would run for seven days. Commanded by veteran astronaut Hank Hartsfield, the crew additionally included Mike Coats, Mike Mullane, Steve Hawley, Judy Resnik and the primary business consultant ever to fly aboard the shuttle, McDonnell Douglas engineer Charlie Walker.

Learn extra at: America area

“Safe Passage to Mars” Design Problem

“Safe Passage to Mars” is a design problem for undergraduate college students. Enabling protected area exploration of Moon, Mars and past requires the appliance of the ideas of Engineering Psychology to design and construct hardware (instruments, units, or gear) which may mitigate important human efficiency points related to long-duration spaceflight.

Learn extra at: ISSF

10th IAASS Convention

15 – 17 Might 2019 – Los Angeles, USA

The tenth IAASS Convention “Making Safety Happen” is an invite to mirror and trade info on quite a lot of subjects in area security and sustainability of nationwide and worldwide curiosity. The convention can also be a discussion board to advertise mutual understanding, belief, and the widest attainable worldwide cooperation in such issues. The as soon as unique “club” of countries with autonomous area entry capabilities is turning into crowded with recent, and impressive new entrants. New business spaceports and near-spaceports are in operations and others are being constructed.

Learn extra at: IAASS Convention

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